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Safeguarding Children from Radicalisation

To be used in conjunction with the Wales Safeguarding Procedures

Who is this practice guide for?

This guide is primarily for practitioners working with children (up to the age of 18). This includes those working in early years, social care, education, health, the police, youth offending and youth, community and family support services (including the third sector) and foster care and residential care.

What is this guide for?

Safeguarding children is a responsibility shared by everyone in contact with children. The Wales Safeguarding Procedures support individuals and agencies across Wales to understand their roles and responsibilities in keeping children and adults safe. They support a consistent approach to safeguarding practice and procedures.

This practice guide provides additional information about safeguarding responses where a child is at risk of radicalisation or being drawn into terrorism. It should be used in conjunction with the Wales Safeguarding Procedures.

Effective safeguarding arrangements in every local authority area should be underpinned by two key principles:

There are some issues, which are common across safeguarding practice guides and some, which are specific to the safeguarding issue being considered:


Radicalisation is the process through which a person comes to support or be involved in extremist ideologies, and in some cases can then come to participate in extremist or terrorist groups.

Extremism is defined as vocal or active opposition to fundamental British values, including democracy, the rule of law, individual liberty and mutual respect and tolerance of different faiths and beliefs. The UK Government Prevent Strategy also includes in its definition of extremism calls for the death of members of our armed forces, whether in this country or overseas.

Violent extremism is a real threat to all communities - violent extremists actively aim to damage community relations and create division. That is why it is vital that we all work together to support those who are vulnerable in this way.

Children can be exposed to different views and receive information from various sources. Some of these views may be considered radical or extreme.

Terrorism can be defined as a violent action that:

Evidence base

Understanding the signs of radicalisation or extremism

The Wales’ Counter Terrorism Police, ‘Understanding the signs of Extremism’ provides some of the signs of possible radicalisation or extremism include:

Verbal and offensive

Grievance and Beliefs

Change in behaviour

Understand the following changes in behaviour, which may be a cause for concern

Online activity

Social media and online apps, gaming sites, websites, podcasts, radio, TV stations, forums and private chat rooms – provide a unique opportunity for people to express their views but they might become an echo chamber and individuals might find themselves drawn into the same beliefs of others.

How does radicalisation happen?

The NSPCC’s Radicalisation guidance sets out that the process of radicalisation may involve:

Being groomed online in person

Exploitation, including child sexual exploitation

Psychological manipulation

Exposure to violent material and other inappropriate information

The risk of physical harm or death through extremist acts.

Online radicalisation

The Prevent Duty

Respect and Resilience – guidance for schools and education providers

All Wales Prevent team

You may also directly refer to the All Wales Prevent team via this online form or by emailing

This does not replace safeguarding procedures but may be an outcome of a multi-agency strategy discussion or part of work to meet the care, support and protection needs of a child.

The All Wales Prevent Team considers referrals via a Multi-Agency Channel Panel and will decide on the most appropriate response for each referral.

What is Channel?

Channel is part of the Prevent strategy. Channel focuses on providing support at an early stage to people who are identified as being vulnerable to being drawn into terrorism. Channel uses a multi-agency approach to:

Channel is a multi-agency approach to identify and provide support to individuals who are at risk of being drawn into terrorism. The process is led by a multi-agency panel, chaired by the local authority. It also includes the Channel Police Practitioner (CPP) who is the co-ordinator. The CPP is the initial point of contact and their role is to assess whether or not the case shows a genuine vulnerability to extremism and to agree with the Local Authority Prevent Lead, whether the referral should be considered at a Channel Panel.

A Proportionate Response

When a child has been reported under section 130, the local authority must consider whether there are grounds for carrying out an investigation under section 47 of the Children Act 1989.


These organisations are there for all children and young people in Wales. Professionals and practitioners should let children know about these organisations and how to contact them.

Meic is the helpline service for children and young people up to the age of 25 in Wales. From finding out what’s going on in your local area to help dealing with a tricky situation, Meic will listen even when no-one else will. They won’t judge you and will help by giving you information, useful advice and the support you need to make a change. You can:

You can contact the Children's Children's Commissioner for Wales Investigation and Advice service which is free and confidential. It’s there as a source of help and support if children and young people or those who care for them feel that a child’s been treated unfairly. You or you parent/carer can:

Childline is a free, private and confidential service where anyone under 19 can access support and advice. The Childline website has information and advice pages as well as tools to help you work through problems yourself. If you want to talk or chat to Childline you can:

NPSCC provides a free helpline for any adult or professional with concerns about children’s safeguarding including radicalisation NSPCC Helpline 0808 8005000 or email

EYST Wales is an all Wales charity providing support for BME children and young people including children at risk of radicalisation

Hope Not Hate is an advocacy group based in the United Kingdom. It campaigns against racism and fascism, and seeks to combine research with community organising and grassroots actions to defeat hate groups at elections and to build community resilience against extremism

A Family guide to talking about radicalisation and extremism -

Workshop to Raise Awareness of Prevent (WRAP)


Department for Education (DfE) (2015) The Prevent duty: departmental advice for schools and childcare providers. London: Department for Education.

Department for Education (DfE) (2017) Safeguarding and Radicalisation. London: Department for Education

Department for Education (DfE) (2018) Work based learners and the Prevent statutory duty. London: Department for Education.

ESTYN (2020) [Prevent – how well maintained schools implement their duties under the Counter-Terrorism and Security Act 2015]( - thematic report en.pdf). Wales: ESTYN

HM Government (2011) Prevent Strategy (PDF). [London]: HM Government.

HM Government (2013) Tackling extremism in the UK: report from the Prime Minister’s task force on tackling radicalisation and extremism (PDF). London: HM Government.

Home Office (2021) Channel Duty guidance: protecting people vulnerable to being drawn into terrorism, London: Home Office,

Home Office (2019) Revised Prevent duty guidance for England and Wales: guidance for specified authorities in England and Wales on the duty in the Counter-Terrorism and Security Act 2015 to have due regard to the need to prevent people from being drawn into terrorism. [London]: Home Office.

Home Office and Department for Education (DfE) (2015) How social media is used to encourage travel to Syria and Iraq: briefing note for schools (PDF). London: Home Office.

Welsh Government (2016) Respect and Resilience: developing community cohesion Wales: Welsh Government

Welsh Baccalaureate Qualification National/Foundation Global citizenship challenge. Inequality – Extremism

The GOT (Getting on Together) Project

Welsh Government, (2020) Keeping learners safe: the role of local authorities, governing bodies and proprietors of independent schools under the Education Act 2002