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Glossary

Abuse
This describes physical, sexual, psychological, emotional or financial abuse (and includes abuse taking place in any setting, whether in a private dwelling, an institution or any other place).
Adult Protection Conference
The adult protection conference is a multi-agency meeting which includes the individual adult at risk, their advocate and relevant others, as appropriate. A conference should support and as much as possible be steered by the adult at risk.
Adult Protection and Support Orders (APSOs)
The aim of an APSO is to enable adults at risk to express their views independently. These should be sought rarely after less interventionist approaches have been considered and/or attempted. However, in circumstances when a social services practitioner, or other practitioner acting on the local authority’s behalf, is prevented from speaking to the adult suspected of being at risk because of abuse and neglect or the practitioner suspects the adult may be being coerced or threatened into not speaking to the practitioner the local authority can apply for an APSO.
Adult at risk
Describes anyone over 18 years of age who is experiencing or is at risk of abuse or neglect and has needs for care and support (whether or not the authority is meeting any of those needs), and as a result of those needs is unable to protect himself or herself against the abuse or neglect or the risk of it.(S 126 of the Social Services and Well-being Act 2014)
Advocacy
Advocacy is defined as any action that supports and represents the voice of the child or adult at risk ensuring that their rights are upheld and the child or adult at risk’s views and experiences are heard and respected.
Assessment Framework see the Framework for the Assessment of Children and their Families
The Assessment Framework is frequently used in Wales to assess children with care and support needs and those with care and support protection needs. The Framework consists of three domains: child’s developmental needs; parenting capacity and family and environmental factors. Each domain is sub-divided into dimensions that is areas that should be considered for each domain.
Authorised Officer re APSOs
An authorised officer is employed by the local authority and has undertaken specialist training and is required to keep their skills up to date. Their responsibility is to ascertain whether a person is making decisions freely to properly assess whether the person is an adult at risk and to decide, as required by s.126(2) of the Social Services and Well-being (Wales) Act 2014, what, if any, action should be taken.
Care and support protection plan co-ordinator
Each child, whose name is placed on the child protection register, should have a Care and Support Protection Plan Co-ordinator. They are the named social worker who carries the practitioner responsibility for the case. The social worker must be employed by social services, registered with Social Care Wales and have appropriate qualifications, training and experience to undertake the role of the care and support plan coordinator. They are responsible for coordinating the preparation, completion, review, delivery and revision of the plan. They should actively engage with the child
Care and support protection plan for adults at risk experiencing abuse or neglect
This is the plan developed by the strategy group. The care and support protection plan seeks to remove or reduce the risk of abuse or neglect. The plan should include all elements of a plan required under Part 4 s19 or 24 of the 2014 Act but emphasise the protection or risk management to support the individual achieve their personal outcomes.
Care and support protection plan for children
Under s.37 of the Social Services and Wellbeing Act 2014 the Local Authority must meet the care and support needs of a child in order to protect them from: abuse or neglect; a risk of abuse or neglect; other harm; a risk of such harm. The detail of the actions required to meet the child’s needs and by whom are referred to as care and support protection plans.
Categories of risk of harm
A decision should be made at conference as to whether each child considered is at ongoing risk of significant harm. If this is the case the practitioners at the child protection conference, should decide and record continuing risk of abuse, neglect or harm as being under one, or more, of the following categories:
  • physical;
  • emotional or psychological;
  • sexual;
  • financial; or
  • neglect
The category, or combination of categories, used in registration will indicate to those consulting the register the primary presenting concerns at the time of registration
Child
An individual under the age of 18 years.
Child Assessment Order
A Child Assessment Order, can be used if parents continue to refuse access to a child for the purpose of establishing basic facts about the child’s condition but concerns about the child’s safety are not so urgent as to require an Emergency Protection Order. The Order enables the Court to direct the parents to co-operate with an assessment, the details of which will be specific, but does not allow for the removal of the child from home. The Order does not take away the child’s own right to refuse an assessment. The parents should be informed of the legal steps that could be used.
Child at risk
This describes an individual under the age of 18 years who is experiencing or is at risk of abuse, neglect or other kinds of harm; and who has needs for care and support (whether or not the authority is meeting any of those needs). When a child has been reported under section 130 of the Social Services and Well-being Act 2014, the local authority shall make, or cause to be made, such enquiries as they consider necessary to enable them to decide whether they should take any action to safeguard or promote the child’s welfare under section 47 of the Children Act (1989).
Child criminal exploitation (CCE)
Occurs when a child under the age of 18 years is involved in criminal activities including the movement of drugs or money which results in personal gain for an individual, group or organised criminal gang. It involves an element of exchange and can still be exploitation even if the activity appears consensual. CCE involve force and/or enticement-based methods of compliance and is often accompanied by violence or threats of violence. It is typified by some form of power imbalance in favour of those perpetrating the exploitation.
Child neglect
Child neglect is a failure on the part of either the male and/or female caregiver or pregnant mother to complete the parenting tasks required to ensure the developmental needs of the child are met. This failure may be associated with parenting issues such as such a drug and alcohol misuse. Neglect should be differentiated from poverty and occurs despite reasonable resources being available to enable the carer/s to complete the parenting tasks to a good enough standard. Whilst neglect is likely to be ongoing and cause cumulative harm one-off incidents and episodic neglect can affect the health and development of the child. There are a range of parenting behaviours that can be described as neglect: Medical neglect: a failure to seek and provide appropriate medical, dental and optical care Nutritional neglect: occurs when the carer fails to pay sufficient attention to the diet for the child who may become obese or fail to thrive Supervisory neglect: happens when the carer fails to provide the level of guidance and supervision that ensures the child is safe and protected from harm Educational neglect: is more than securing school attendance it includes a failure on the part of the carer to provide an environment allowing the child to achieve their cognitive potential Physical neglect: happens when the child does not receive appropriate physical care necessary for their age and development and/or where the child lives in a physical environment that is not conducive to their health and development healthy and/or is unsafe Identity neglect occurs when a parent or carer fails to recognise and address the child or young person’s needs in terms of culture, religion, gender and sexuality.
Child protection register
The child protection register lists all children in a local authority area who are suffering or likely to suffer significant harm and who are currently subject of a care and support protection plan. The child’s name is placed on the register in order to: alert all practitioners working with a child to their risk of harm; confirm that a care and support protection plan for the protection of the child is in place and must be complied with; that a social worker and a core group of practitioners are working with the child and family.
Child-centred practice
This means concentrating on the child at each stage of the safeguarding process. This is achieved by focusing on the needs and views of the child by listening to what they have to say, informing and engaging them in the process and having due regard for their wishes when deciding what services are required to meet their needs. Children who are very young, have mental health issues, a communication impairment, learning disabilities or wish to be represented or supported should be offered an advocate (see definition of advocacy).
Children’s Guardian
Sometimes referred to as a guardian ad litem (GAL) is the person the court appoints to establish what actions are in the “best interests of a child.”
Co-production
This means developing a working relationship with the adult at risk and/or the child and their family, so that the individual and their family feel respected and informed, they believe professionals are being open and honest. In turn, they are confident about providing relevant information about themselves, or the child and their circumstances
Concerns
Suspicion of abuse or neglect may take the form of ‘concerns’ rather than ‘known facts’ because evidence of harm may not always be present. Rather, practitioners may suspect abuse or neglect of a child or adult at risk. Alternatively, concerns may be based on information derived from a variety or sources and accumulated over time. Practitioners should also remember that their concerns may, in isolation, not be significant. However, alongside those from other agencies and sources they may build up a picture which suggests that a child or adult at risk may be suffering harm, abuse or neglect.
Conference chair
The primary role of the conference chair is to ensure that the conference is child-centred and that the protection, care and support needs of the child/ren are identified and addressed. The chair should be independent of operational or line management responsibility for the case;
Core group
The core group is a multi-agency group of practitioners with responsibility for developing and delivering the care and support, protection plan. The care and support protection plan co-ordinator should convene the group. All members of the core group have equal ownership of and responsibility for the detailed care and support, protection plan and should co-operate to achieve its aims. Core group members have a responsibility to challenge and report concerns where they believe the plan is not protecting the child from the risk of abuse, neglect or other forms of harm.
Court of Protection
If the adult at risk has been assessed as lacking mental capacity in relation to a matter relating to their welfare, the Court of Protection has the power to make an order under Section 16(2) of the MCA relating to a person’s welfare, which makes the decision on that person’s behalf to allow access to an adult lacking capacity. The Court can also appoint a deputy to make welfare decisions for that person.
Criminal offence
Abuse or neglect may constitute a criminal offence. These include offences against the person (violent offences), sexual offences and property offences such as theft. If abuse or neglect is motivated by someone’s personal characteristic – disability, race and ethnicity, religion and belief, sexual orientation and transgender / gender identity– then this may be a hate crime.
Delegated lead co-ordinator
In certain circumstances an employee from an agency, other than social services, may chair the conference where that agency has more appropriate professional expertise or experience
Designated Officer for Safeguarding (DOS)
The nominated person within a local authority who is responsible for managing and monitoring safeguarding allegations in relation to paid and unpaid social care workers. Providing advice, information and guidance to employers and voluntary organisations around safeguarding allegations and concerns in relation to practitioners/volunteers. This is a delegated role from the Local Authority Designated Officer (LADO), if in place.
Designated Safeguarding Person (DSP)
Is the identified person within the organisation who is available to discuss safeguarding concerns. They should be consulted as to whether to raise a safeguarding concern with the local authority, will manage any immediate actions required to ensure the individual at risk is safe from abuse. All practitioners should know who to contact in their agency for advice and they should not hesitate to discuss their concerns no matter how insignificant they may appear.
Determination
This term is used within the Social Services and Well-being (Wales) Act 2014 and Handling Individual People to describe the decisions that practitioners should make, in line with legislation and guidance, to address any care and support/protection needs of a child or adult at risk.
Domestic abuse and violence
Domestic violence or abuse is abusive behaviour taking place in a relationship as a way for one person in that relationship to gain or maintain control over another. It includes physical sexual emotional psychological and financial abuse.
Duty to co-operate
If a local authority requests the co-operation of a relevant partner in the exercise of any of its social services functions, the person must comply with the request unless the person considers that doing so would be incompatible with the person’s own duties, or otherwise have an adverse effect on the exercise of the person’s functions.
Duty to report
For the purposes of this guidance a duty to report to the local authority will be taken to mean a referral to social services who, alongside the police, have statutory powers to investigate suspected abuse or neglect. Concerns about abuse and neglect may be present when a child or adult at risk is already known to Social Services. Do not presume because they are known that there is no need to report. Always report.
Emergency Protection Order (EPO)
An Emergency Protection Order is an order from the court that allows the child to be removed from home if the child is in imminent danger and grants parental responsibility to the local authority. An Emergency Protection Order lasts up to 8 days, but can be extended once, for a maximum of 7 days.
Emergency duty team also known as out of hours team
This describes the arrangements made arrangements made by the local authority to allow other agencies, practitioners and members of the public to report concerns about a child or adult at risk of abuse that may require a response outside office hours.
Emotional abuse
Emotional abuse is the ongoing emotional maltreatment of a child. It’s sometimes called psychological abuse and can seriously damage a child’s emotional health and development. Emotional abuse can involve deliberately trying to scare or humiliate a child or isolating or ignoring them. Children who are emotionally abused are often suffering another type of abuse or neglect at the same tim. Emotional abuse includes: humiliating or constantly criticising a child threatening, shouting at a child or calling them names making the child the subject of jokes, or using sarcasm to hurt a child blaming, scapegoating making a child perform degrading acts not recognising a child's own individuality, trying to control their lives pushing a child too hard or not recognising their limitations exposing a child to distressing events or interactions such as domestic abuse or drug taking failing to promote a child's social development not allowing them to have friends persistently ignoring them being absent manipulating a child never saying anything kind, expressing positive feelings or congratulating a child on successes never showing any emotions in interactions with a child, also known as emotional neglect.
Enquiries
Following a report, social services have a duty to make enquires, if there is reasonable case to suspect that a person within its area (whether or not ordinarily resident there) is a child or an adult at risk. This term describes the information-gathering undertaken by social services in order to determine whether any action should be taken to safeguard the child or adult at risk.
Exclusion Orders
These allow for a perpetrator to be removed from the home, instead of removing the child. They can be used in conjunction with an Emergency Protection Order
Factual accuracy
It is the responsibility of those involved in an assessment of a child or an adult at risk to distinguish between events, occurrences, incidents and state of affairs known to have happened and opinion or suspicion.
Female Genital Mutilation
Female genital mutilation (FGM) comprises all procedures that involve partial or total removal of the external female genitalia, or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons The FGM mandatory reporting duty is a legal duty provided for in the FGM Act 2003 (as amended by the Serious Crime Act 2015). The legislation requires regulated health and social care professionals and teachers in England and Wales to make a report to the police if they have reason to believe a girl under the age of 18 years has been subject to FGM. The duty does not apply in relation to at risk or suspected cases or in cases where the woman is over 18. In these cases, local safeguarding procedures should be followed.
Financial abuse
Financial abuse includes theft, fraud, pressure about money, misuse of money.
Framework for the Assessment of Children and their Families (also known as the Assessment Framework or Assessment Triangle)
The Assessment Framework is frequently used in Wales to assess children with care and support needs and those with care and support protection needs. The Framework consists of three domains: child’s developmental needs; parenting capacity and family and environmental factors. Each domain is sub-divided into dimensions that is areas that should be considered for each domain.
General Data Protection Regulation 2018 (GDPR)
This is Europe’s framework for data protection. It applies in the UK and relates to the collection and process of personal data and information.
Gillick competence
This test of competence is used to determine whether a child has reached the stage of development whereby they have sufficient understanding and level of intelligence that means they are capable of making up their own mind on the matter requiring a decision. If the child is deemed to be Gillick competent parents right yield to the child’s right to make their own decisions.
Harm
Harm means abuse or the impairment of (a) physical or mental health, or (b) physical, intellectual, emotional, social or behavioural development. The references to ‘harm’, in relation to section 47 enquiries, referred to in handling individual cases vol 5, means significant harm. Therefore, practitioners must where the question of whether harm is significant turns on the child’s health or development, the child’s health or development is to be compared with that which could reasonably be expected of a similar child.
Independent Mental Health Advocate (IMHA)
An IMHA is an independent advocate who is trained to work within the framework of the Mental Health Act 1983 to support people to understand their rights under the Act and participate in decisions about their care and treatment.
Independent Professional Advocate (IPA)
Children and young people are entitled to an active offer of advocacy from a statutory Independent Professional Advocate (IPA) when they become looked after or become subject of child protection enquiries leading to an Initial Child Protection Conference”.
Initial Child Protection Conference (ICPC)
The initial child protection conference follows s47 enquiries where there are concerns of continuing risk of harm to a child/ren. The conference brings together family members (and the child where appropriate), with the supporters, advocates and practitioners most involved with the child and family, to make decisions about the child’s future safety, well-being and development.
Initial evaluation
The initial evaluation builds on the accuracy and factual screening to decide what action should be taken to support and protect the adult at risk. This is achieved by collecting, reviewing and collating information obtained from the adult at risk, and/or practitioners who know the adult and carers during the s.126 enquiries.
Initial screening
Drawing on sufficient i.e. proportionate information, practitioners determine whether further action is required to meet the care and support/protection needs of the adult at risk.
Inter-agency
This term, in the context of these procedures refers to two agencies working collaboratively to identify and meet safeguarding needs. For example, police and social services.
Investigation
These are undertaken by the police when a criminal offence relating to the abuse and neglect is suspected to have occurred. (See also criminal offence.)
Lead care and support protection plan practitioner also known as lead practitioner
This practitioner takes the multi-agency lead and actively engages with and works in partnership with the adult at risk on the care and support protection plan.
Lead co-ordinator
Is a social services local authority employee who should ensure that an adult protection conference is convened, chaired and a record taken. The Lead Co-ordinator must be an individual who is been employed within Social Services and where possible be a qualified social worker registered with the Social Care Wales.
Lead practitioner also known as the lead care and support protection plan practitioner
This practitioner takes the multi-agency lead and actively engages with and works in partnership with the adult at risk on the care and support protection plan.
Local Authority Designated Officer (LADO)
The nominated person with a Local Authority who is responsible for managing and monitoring safeguarding allegations in relation to paid and unpaid social care workers. Providing advice, information and guidance to employers and voluntary organisations around safeguarding allegations and concerns.
Local authority
Local authorities have a key role in identifying and addressing care and support protection needs for both adults and children. This role is set out in a number of statutes.
MAPPA
MAPPA stands for Multi-Agency Public Protection Arrangements. and it is the process through which criminal justice agencies work together with other relevant agencies to protect the public by managing the risks posed by violent and sexual offenders living in the community.
MARAC
A multi-agency risk assessment conference (MARAC), is a meeting where information is shared and a co-ordinated action plan developed in high-risk domestic violence situations. The primary aim is to safeguard those experiencing domestic violence. MARACs are attended by representatives of relevant agencies such as local police, probation, health, child protection, housing practitioners, domestic violence advisors and other specialists from the statutory and voluntary sectors.
Mental Capacity Act 2005
The Mental Capacity Act is designed to protect and empower individuals such as adults at risk who may lack the mental capacity to make their own decisions about their care and protection. The Act recognises that an individual may lack capacity to make some decisions but still have the capacity to make other. Moreover, a person may lack capacity to make specific decisions at one point in time but may be able to make the same decision at a later time. The Act assume a person has the capacity to make a decision themselves, unless it's proved otherwise It applies to people aged 16.
Modern Slavery
Modern slavery describes forced labour practices with the perpetrator – the slave master- trapping and controlling the victim. The most common form of modern slavery is sexual exploitation. Labour exploitation is the second most common form of slavery occurring most frequently in the agricultural, food, hospitality and construction sectors. Victims may be vulnerable UK or foreigner citizens. Police, Local Authorities, the National Crime Agency and the Gangmasters Labour and Abuse Authority who encounter a potential victim of modern slavery or human trafficking have a duty to notify the Home Office under Section 52 of the Modern Slavery Act 2015.
Multi-agency
The term, in the context of these procedures, describes a diverse range of organisations working jointly or collaboratively to identify and meet the safeguarding needs of children and adults at risk of abuse or neglect.
Multi-disciplinary
In this context multi-disciplinary means practitioners from different disciplines working together and drawing on their varied expertise and skills to achieve specific objectives, for example delivering a care and support protection plan. Practitioners may be from the same and/or different organisations.
Neglect
This means a failure to meet a person’s basic physical, emotional, social or psychological needs, which is likely to result in an impairment of the person’s well-being (for example, an impairment of the person’s health).
Neglect to an adult at risk
This includes a failure to access medical care or services, emotional neglect, negligence in the face of risk taking, failure to give prescribed medication, failure to assist in personal hygiene or the provision of food, shelter or clothing.
Office of the Public Guardian
The Office of the Public Guardian (OPG) protects people in Wales and England who may not have the mental capacity to make certain decisions for themselves, such as about their health and finance.
Out of hours team also known as emergency duty team
This describes the arrangements made arrangements made by the local authority to allow other agencies, practitioners and members of the public to report concerns about a child or adult at risk of abuse that may require a response outside office hours.
Part 3 assessments under The Social Services and Wellbeing (Wales) Act 2014
Part 3 of the Act outlines the local authority responsibilities to assess a person’s needs for care and support or a carer’s needs for support.
Person-centred
Being person-centred means putting the needs of the person at the centre of decision-making.This means engaging with the adult at risk throughout the safeguarding process; enabling them to determine how risks are managed and ensuring decision-making takes account of what they want to happen and the personal outcomes they wish to achieve. It is a legal duty to consider a person’s need for advocacy and to provide appropriate support to enable people to participate. This may be through professional advocacy or informal advocates such as family members/carers. It is important that practitioners assume a person has the mental capacity to engage in the process and make decisions unless it is established that they lack capacity to make specific decisions at a specific time.
Physical abuse to a child
Physical abuse means deliberately hurting a child or young person. It includes: physical restraint; such as being tied to a bed, locked in a room inflicting burns cutting, slapping, punching, kicking, biting or choking stabbing or shooting withholding food or medical attention drugging denying sleep inflicting pain shaking or hitting babies fabricating or inducing illness (FII).
Physical abuse to an adult at risk
This includes hitting, slapping, over or misuse of medication, undue restraint or inappropriate sanctions.
Police Powers of Protection
Police Powers of Protection can be used without reference to a Court and is only used in emergency situations where a delay in an Emergency Protection Order may put a child at risk. Police Powers of Protection lasts up to 72 hours.
Practitioner
The term ‘practitioner’ has been used as a blanket term to describe anyone who is in paid employment as well as unpaid volunteers.
Professional abuse
Where a professional whose work, either in a paid or voluntary capacity, brings them into contact with children or adults at risk, or have caring responsibilities for children or adults, and their employment brings them into contact with children or adults at risk, who then in a position trust abuse or neglect children or adults at risk in their care
Psychological abuse
Threats of harm or abandonment, coercive control, humiliation, verbal or racial abuse, isolation or withdrawal from services or supportive networks, witnessing abuse of others
Psychological abuse to an adult at risk
This includes threats of harm or abandonment, coercive control, humiliation, verbal or racial abuse, isolation or withdrawal from services or supportive networks; coercive control is an act or pattern of acts of assault, threats, humiliation, intimidation or other abuse that is used to harm, punish or frighten the victim.
Referral
For the purposes of these procedures a report to social services will be taken to also mean a referral.
Referrer aka report-maker
The practitioner or member of the public who reports to social services concerns about possible abuse, neglect of an adult at risk or harm, abuse or neglect to a child.
Regional Safeguarding Boards
These are the six multi-agency strategic boards of relevant partner agencies set up across Wales designed to protect children and adults at risk of, abuse or neglect and to prevent those children and adults from becoming at risk of abuse or neglect. Members of the board are referred to as relevant partners Under Part 7 of the Social Services and Well-being (Wales) Act 2014, (SSWA 2014) local authorities must establish Safeguarding Children Boards comprised of representatives from local authorities, the local police body, local health board, NHS Trust, probation board, youth offending team and others..
Relevant partners
The Social Services and Wellbeing (Wales) Act 2014 s 128, 129 and 130 specifies the duty placed on practitioners deemed to be ‘relevant partners’ under section 162 of the Act to report both adults and children, including unborn children, they have reasonable cause to suspect are at risk of abuse. This includes employees of policing body, local authority, probation and offender management services, health boards and NHS trusts and those discharging functions under Part 2 of the Learning and Skills Act 2000. All those whose agencies are not included as ‘relevant partners’ as listed above are still expected to report any safeguarding concerns in the same way as those with a specific duty to report. This includes both paid and non-paid practitioners in third sector organisations (this includes: voluntary, independent contractors and sub-contractors, independent professionals and private organisations).
Report-maker aka referrer
The practitioner or member of the public who reports to social services concerns about possible abuse, neglect of an adult at risk or harm, abuse or neglect to a child.
Report-taker
The social services practitioner who receives the report, completes initial checks and establishes whether immediate action is required
Safeguarding
Safeguarding means preventing and protecting children and adults at risk from abuse or neglect and educating those around them to recognise the signs and dangers.
Safeguarding lead
is the identified person within the organisation who: is available to discuss safeguarding concerns; should be consulted, when possible, as to whether to raise a safeguarding concern with the local authority; will manage any immediate actions required to ensure the individual at risk is safe from abuse; All practitioners should know who to contact in their agency for advice and they should not hesitate to discuss their concerns no matter how insignificant they may appear.
Section 126(2) Social Services and Well-being (Wales) Act 2014
Safeguarding enquiries into concerns about abuse and neglect of an adult at risk are made under s.126 of the Social Services and Well-being (Wales) Act 2014. They may be referred to as s126 enquiries.
Section 47 Enquiries under the Children Act 1989
The purpose of the Children Act 1989 Section 47 enquiries is to establish whether a child is suffering or is likely to suffer significant harm and requires intervention to safeguard and promote their well-being. Social services have lead responsibility for the enquiries. Other practitioners, such as the police, health, education and other relevant partners have a duty to co-operate and help Social Services undertake its enquiries.
Sexual abuse to a child
There are 2 different types of child sexual abuse. These are called contact abuse and non-contact abuse. Contact abuse involves: touching activities where an abuser makes physical contact with a child, including penetration. It includes: sexual touching of any part of the body whether the child's wearing clothes or not rape or penetration by putting an object or body part inside a child's mouth, vagina or anus forcing or encouraging a child to take part in sexual activity making a child take their clothes off, touch someone else's genitals or masturbate. Non-contact abuse involves: non-touching activities, such as grooming, exploitation, persuading children to perform sexual acts over the internet and flashing. It includes encouraging a child to watch or hear sexual acts not taking proper measures to prevent a child being exposed to sexual activities by others meeting a child following sexual grooming with the intent of abusing them online abuse including making, viewing or distributing child abuse images allowing someone else to make, view or distribute child abuse images showing pornography to a child sexually exploiting a child for money, power or status (child exploitation)
Sexual abuse to an adult at risk
This includes rape and sexual assault or sexual acts to which the adult has not or could not consent and / or was pressured into consenting.
Sexual exploitation
Sexual exploitation is the coercion or manipulation of children or adults at risk into taking part in sexual activities. It is a form of sexual abuse involving an exchange of some form of payment which can include money, mobile phones and other items, drugs, alcohol, a place to stay, ‘protection’ or affection. The vulnerability of the individual and grooming process employed by perpetrators renders them powerless to recognise the exploitative nature of relationships and unable to give informed consent.
Significant harm
Where the question of whether harm is significant turns on the child’s health or development, the child’s health or development is to be compared with that which could reasonably be expected of a similar child.
Social Services
Social services are a department of the local authority responsible for the provision of social care for adults at risk and children. They act on behalf of the local authority to discharge the local authority’s statutory duties and powers to make enquiries and intervene when necessary when there is reason to believe a child or adult is at risk.
Strategy discussion or meeting concerning a child believed to be at risk of or experiencing harm
The purpose of a strategy meeting/discussion is to determine whether there are grounds for a Section 47 enquiry under the Children Act 1989. This usually takes place when the indications from the initial enquires are that there are reasonable grounds to believe a child has suffered or is likely to suffer significant harm. Strategy meetings should be multiagency involving, at a minimum, social services and the police. Other key practitioners involved with the child and their family should also attend.
Strategy discussion/meeting for adults at risk experiencing abuse and neglect
This is the forum for sharing information, making sense of the information and deciding what action should be taken by whom and by when. It is also the vehicle for developing, implementing and reviewing the care and support protection plan. Such a meeting may be held virtually if urgency demands
Strategy group for adults at risk of abuse and neglect
The strategy group are the practitioners who attend the strategy meeting/s or discussions/s, establish whether the adult at risk is experiencing abuse and neglect and whether they need a care and support protection plan. They are also responsible for developing, implementing and reviewing the care and support protection plan.
Trafficking
Child trafficking describes the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt, of a child which includes an element of movement from one place to another. The child may be suffering abuse through sexual exploitation, criminal exploitation, forced labour or domestic servitude, slavery, financial exploitation, illegal adoption or removal of organs. It occurs to those up to the age of 18 years old. Adult trafficking describes the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt, of an adult at risk which includes an element of movement from one place to another. The adult at risk may be suffering abuse through sexual exploitation, criminal exploitation, forced labour or domestic servitude, slavery, financial exploitation, or removal of organs.
VAWDASV
Violence against women, domestic abuse and sexual violence (VAWDASV) this includes female genital mutilation